Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
2021 APR 9
International Relations > Miscellaneous > India-USA
Why in news?
- The US Navy conducted a Freedom of Navigation Operation (FONOP) in the Indian Ocean region when its warship ventured into India's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) near Lakshadweep Islands without the latter's permission.
- Freedom of Navigation Operations involves passages conducted by the US Navy through waters claimed by coastal nations as their exclusive territory.
- An exclusive economic zone (EEZ), as prescribed by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is an area of the sea in which a sovereign state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.
- It stretches from the baseline out to 200 nautical miles (nmi) from the coast of the state in question.
- The exception to this rule occurs when exclusive economic zones would overlap and when an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary.
- It is also referred to as a maritime continental margin and, in colloquial usage, may include the continental shelf.
- The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nautical mile limit.
- The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea.
- France possesses the largest EEZ in the world, covering 11.7 million km2.
Consider the following regarding Exclusive economic Zone (EEZ):
1.It is defined by UNCLOS norms.
2.USA has the largest EEZ in the world.
Choose the correct statements from the codes given below:
(c)Both 1 and 2
(d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer to the Prelims Question