Guru Gobind Singh

JAN 11

Preliminary   > Art and Culture   >   Miscellaneous   >   Religion

Why in news?

  • Prime Minister has announced the government decision to mark December 26 as Veer Bal Diwas in the memory of Guru Gobind Singh’s sons.

About Guru Gobind Singh:

  • He was the 10th Sikh guru. He became the Sikh guru at the age of nine, following the demise of father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh Guru.
  • The annual celebration of the Guru’s birthday is based on the Nanakshahi calendar.

Contributions:

  • Religious:
    • He is known for his significant contributions to the Sikh religion, including the introduction of the turban to cover hair.
    • He founded the Sikh warrior community called Khalsa in 1699 and introduced the Five Ks, the five articles of faith that Khalsa Sikhs wear at all times.
    • The Five K’s are:
      • Kesh (uncut hair), kanga (wooden comb), kara (iron or steel bracelet), kirpan (dagger) and kachera (short breeches).
    • These were the five articles of faith that a Khalsa must always adorn.
    • He also laid down many other rules for the Khalsa warriors to follow like abstaining from tobacco, alcohol, halal meat, etc. The Khalsa warrior was also duty-bound to protect innocent people from persecution.
    • He named Guru Granth Sahib, the religious text of the Khalsas and the Sikhs, as the next Guru of the two communities.
  • Martial:
    • He fought against the Mughals in the battle of Muktsar in 1705.
    • In the Battle of Anandpur (1704), the Guru lost his mother and two minor sons who were executed. His eldest son also died in battle.
  • Literary:
    • His literary contributions include the Jaap Sahib, Benti Chaupai, Amrit Savaiye, etc.
    • He also wrote the Zafarnama which was a letter to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.

Death

  • Guru Gobind Singh was killed by a Mughal assassin in 1708, a year after the death of Aurangzeb.

Sahibzades:

  • Guru Gobind Singh had four sons – Sahibzada Ajit Singh, Sahibzada Jujhar Singh, Sahibzada Zorawar Singh and Sahibzada Fateh Singh.
  • All four of his sons were initiated into the Khalsa and all were executed by Mughal forces before the age of 19.
  • Sikhism honors the illustrious martyred sons of Guru Gobind Singh in the prayer of ardas for their valor and sacrifice as ‘Char Sahibzade’, that is the four princes of the Khalsa warrior order.

About Veer Bal Diwas:

  • The day marks when Sahibzada Zorawar Singh and Sahibzada Fateh Singh attained martyrdom when they were executed by the Mughals (1705).

 

PRELIMS QUESTION

Consider the following statements regarding Guru Gobind Singh:

1. He founded the Sikh warrior community called Khalsa in 1699

2. He was the first Sikh guru.

3. He fought against the Mughals in the battle of Muktsar

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 2 only

(d) 1,2 and 3

Answer