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Ramappa Temple, Golconda Fort and Qutb Shahi tombs

OCT 18

Preliminary   > Art and Culture   >   Architecture   >   Archaeological sites

Why in news?

  • Bolstered by the World Heritage Site status for the Ramappa Temple in Palampet, the Telangana Government has made its intentions clear about securing UNESCO status for the Golconda Fort and the Qutb Shahi Tombs complex.

About Ramappa Temple:

  • It is also known as the Rudreshwara temple
  • It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Telangana.
  • An inscription in the temple says it was construction started in the year 1213 CE by Recharla Rudra—a General of Kakatiya ruler Ganapati Deva 1199–1262.
  • Located in the vicinity of Ramappa Lake, the Ramappa Temple complex which consist of three temples was constructed between 1212-1234, designed and architect by Rammapa—after whom the temple complex is named.
  • The temple is a Sivalayam, where Lord Ramalingeswara is worshipped.
  • Marco Polo, during his visit to the Kakatiya empire, allegedly called the temple "the brightest star in the galaxy of temples"

Features of the temple:

  • The structure is of the pyramidal type, consisting of four storeys
  • Ramappa Temple stands majestically on a 6-foot (1.8 m) high star-shaped platform.
  • The main structure is in a reddish sandstone, but the columns round the outside have large brackets of black basalt which is rich in iron, magnesium and silica
  • Distinctive and pyramidal Vimana (horizontally stepped tower) made of lightweight porous bricks reduced the weight of the roof structures.
  • The temple’s sculptures are of high artistic quality and illustrate regional dance customs and the culture of Kakatiyas.

About Golconda Fort

  • The Raja Krishna Dev of the Kakatiya dynasty with Warangal as capital constructed the Golkonda Fort on a granite hill in the year 1143.
  • During 1495–1496 the fort was handed over to Sultan Kali Kutub Khan as a Jagir (land grant).
  • He reconstructed and rechristened the mud fort into a granite fort and called the place Muhammed Nagar.
  • Later, the Golkonda fort came into the possession of the Bahmani dynasty. Still later, the Qutub Shahi dynasty took over and made Golkonda its capital. Golkonda fort owes much of its present grandeur to Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah, the fifth sultan of Qutb Shahi dynasty.
  • The subsequent generations saw Golkonda being fortified further with several additions and the formation of a beautiful city within.
  • Golconda consists of four distinct forts with a 10 km long outer wall, eight gateways, a number of royal apartments and halls, temples, mosques etc.
  • Because of the vicinity of diamond mines, especially Kollur Mine, Golconda flourished as a trade centre of large diamonds, known as the Golconda Diamonds. By the 17th century, Golkonda was famous as a diamond market.
  • The region has produced some of the world's most famous diamonds, including the colourless Koh-i-Noor (now owned by the United Kingdom), the blue Hope (United States), the pink Daria-i-Noor (Iran), the white Regent (France), the Dresden Green (Germany), and the colourless Orlov (Russia), Nizam and Jacob (India), as well as the now lost diamonds Florentine Yellow, Akbar Shah and Great Mogul.

About Qutb Shahi tombs

  • The Qutub Shahi Tombs are located in the Ibrahim Bagh (garden precinct), close to the Golconda Fort
  • They contain the tombs and mosques built by the various kings of the Qutub Shahi dynasty.
  • The galleries of the smaller tombs are of a single storey while the larger ones are two storied.
  • The tombs form a large cluster and stand on a raised platform. They are domed structures built on a square base surrounded by pointed arches, a distinctive style that blends Persian and Indian forms.

PRACTICE QUESTION:

Consider the following statements:

1. Ramappa Temple is a Shiva temple in a walled complex built during the Kakatiyan period.

2. Golconda Fort was fortified between 14th and 17th centuries by the Bahmani Sultans and then the ruling Qutub Shahi dynasty.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer 


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