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Subhas Chandra Bose

2022 JAN 25

Preliminary   > Modern Indian History   >   Personalities   >   Freedom struggle

Why in news?

  • Govt announces Subhash Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskar for 2022. The award is announced every year on January 23, the birth anniversary of freedom fighter Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.

About Subhas Chandra Bose:

  • Subhas Chandra Bose is a revolutionary leader in independence movement, known in particular for his militant approach to independence and for his push for socialist policies.
  • He also led an Indian National Force (Azad Hind Fauj) from abroad against the Western powers during World War II.
  • He was a contemporary of Mohandas K. Gandhi, at times an ally and at other times an adversary.

Role in freedom movement:

  • Bose appeared for the Indian Civil Service competitive examination in 1920,qualified for the same. However, he was deeply disturbed by the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre, and left his apprenticeship midway and return to India in 1921.
  • After returning to India he came under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi and joined the Indian National Congress and worked under C R Das.
  • In 1928 Congress favored Nehru Report (Domination Status), but Subhas Chandra Bose along with Jawaharlal Nehru opposed it.
  • Bose was jailed during Civil Disobedience movement in 1930. He was released in 1931 after Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed. He protested against the pact.
  • He was soon arrested again under the infamous Bengal Regulation. After an year he was released on medical grounds and was banished from India to Europe.
    • He took steps to establish centres in different European capitals with a view to promoting politico-cultural contacts between India and Europe.
  • Defying the ban on his entry to India, Bose returned to India and was again arrested. After the General Elections of 1937, he was released.
  • Shortly afterwards he was elected President of the Haripura Congress Session in 1938 and was reelected in 1939
  • He set up a National planning Committee in 1938
  • Due to opposition to his rigid stand, and he resigned from the post of president and formed a progressive group known as the ‘Forward Block’.
  • Bose started a mass movement against utilizing Indian resources and men for the Great War. There were great response to his call and he was put under house arrest in Calcutta.
  • In January 1941, Subhas Chandra Bose disappeared from his home in Calcutta and reached Germany via Afghanistan. Working on the maxim that "an enemy's enemy is a friend", he sought cooperation of Germany and Japan against British Empire.
  • In January 1942, he began his regular broadcasts from Radio Berlin, which aroused tremendous enthusiasm in India.

Formation of INA

  • In July 1943, he arrived in Singapore from Germany. In Singapore he took over the reins of the Indian Independence Movement in East Asia from Rash Behari Bose and organised the Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army) comprising mainly of Indian prisoners of war.
  • He was hailed as Netaji by the Army as well as by the Indian civilian population in East Asia.
  • Azad Hind Fauj proceeded towards India to liberate it from British rule. Enroute it liberated Andeman and Nicobar Islands. The I.N.A. Head quarters was shifted to Rangoon in January 1944. Azad Hind Fauj crossed the Burma Border, and stood on Indian soil on March 18 ,1944.
  • However, defeat of Japan and Germany in the Second World War forced INA to retreat and it could not achieve its objective.
  • Subhas Chandra Bose was reportedly killed in an air crash over Taipeh, Taiwan (Formosa) on August 18, 1945.
  • Though it is widely believed that he was still alive after the air crash not much information could be found about him.


With reference to ‘Subhas Chandra Bose’, which of the following statements are correct?

1. He served as President of Indian National Congress

2. He set up a National Planning Committee in 1938

3. Subhas Chandra Bose along with Jawaharlal Nehru opposed Nehru Report of 1928

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1,2 and 3