United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
2022 MAY 26
Environment and Ecology > Degradation & Deforestation > International conventions & protocols
Why in news?
- The fifteenth session of the Conference of the Parties (COP15) of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) held at Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire during 9th May-20th May 2022.
- UNCCD is a sole legally binding environment convention that links development and environment to sustainable land management.
- The UNCCD addresses particularly the arid, semi-arid & dry sub-humid areas, called drylands, where some of the most vulnerable ecosystems and peoples are found.
- The convention was drafted and opened for signing in 1994. It became effective in 1996 after receiving 50 ratifications.
- The convention obliges national governments to take measures to tackle the issue of desertification.
- The convention’s 2018 – 2030 Strategic Framework is a comprehensive international commitment to attain Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) aiming at:
- The restoration of productivity of degraded land.
- Enhancing the livelihoods of people dependent on them.
- Mitigating the impact of droughts on vulnerable populations.
- The convention focuses on having a bottom-up approach to achieve its goals, by involving the local communities.
- The UNCCD is one of the three Rio Conventions, the other two being:
- Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD)
- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
- To spread the word about the UNCCD, 2006 was declared as “International Year of Deserts and Desertification”.
UNCCD and India:
- India ratified the Convention to Combat Desertification in 1996.
- The nodal ministry for the convention in India is the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
- India faces a huge desertification problem. A 2016 ISRO report stated that 29% of the land in India was degraded.
- The 14th Conference of Parties (COP) to the UNCCD was held in India in 2019.
- India was the COP president for 2019 – 2021.
- India is also a part of the Bonn Challenge
- It is an international effort to bring 150 million hectares of the world’s degraded and deforested land into restoration by 2020, and 350 million hectares by 2030.
Consider the following statements regarding United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD):
1. It is a legally binding Convention
2. India ratified the Convention
3. The nodal ministry for the Convention in India is the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1,2 and 3