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Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 2023

2023 JUL 12

Preliminary   > Society   >   Population, poverty & associated issues   >   Reports and indices

Why in news?

  • Recently, the Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 2023 has been released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI).

About Global Multidimensional Poverty Index:

  • The index is a key international resource that measures acute multidimensional poverty across more than 100 developing countries.
  • It was first launched in 2010 by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and Human Development Report Office of the UNDP.
  • The MPI monitors deprivations in 10 indicators spanning health, education and standard of living and includes both incidence as well as intensity of poverty.
  • A person is multi-dimensionally poor if she/he is deprived in one third or more (means 33% or more) of the weighted indicators (out of the ten indicators).
  • Those who are deprived in one half or more of the weighted indicators are considered living in extreme multidimensional poverty.

Key Highlights of the Index:

  • Global:
    • Globally, 1.1 billion people (18% of the total population) out of 6.1 billion people, are acutely multidimensionally poor and live in acute multidimensional poverty across 110 countries.
    • Sub-Saharan Africa has 534 million poor and South Asia has 389 million.
    • These two regions are home to approximately five out of every six poor people.
  • India:
    • India still has more than 230 million people who are poor.
    • The UNDP defines, “Vulnerability — the share of people who are not poor but have deprivations in 20 - 33.3% of all weighted indicators — can be much higher. India has some 18.7% population under this category.
    • India’s Progress in Poverty Reduction:
      • India is among 25 countries, including Cambodia, China, Congo, Honduras, Indonesia, Morocco, Serbia, and Vietnam, that successfully halved their global MPI values within 15 years.
      • Some 415 million Indians escaped poverty between 2005-06 and 2019-21.
      • The incidence of poverty in India declined significantly, from 55.1% in 2005/2006 to 16.4% in 2019/2021.
    • Improvement in Deprivation Indicators:
      • India progressed significantly in all the three deprivation indicators: Health, Education, Standard of living.


Which of the following parameters are covered under Global Multidimensional Poverty Index?

1. Sanitation

2. Housing

3. Nutrition

4. Political participation

5. Social inequality

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1,2 and 3 only

(b) 2,3 and 5 only

(c) 1,3,4 and 5 only

(d) 1,2,3,4 and 5