New findings at Rakhigarhi
2022 MAY 10
Art and Culture > Miscellaneous > Archaeological sites
Why in news?
- The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has made significant discoveries at the Rakhigarhi site - an archaeological site belonging to the Indus Valley Civilisation.
- Archaeologically, the span of the Harappan Civilisation is subdivided into three periods — early (3300 BC to 2600 BC), mature (2600 BC to 1900 BC), and late (1900 BC to 1700 BC).
- Five urban sites — Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, Ganweriwala (now in Pakistan) and Rakhigarhi and Dholavira (India) — have been identified as centres of the Civilisation.
What is Rakhigarhi?
- Rakhigarhi is a village and an archaeological site belonging to the Indus Valley Civilisation in Haryana.
- It was part of the mature phase of the Indus Valley Civilisation, dating to 2600-1900 BCE. The site is located in the Ghaggar-Hakra River plain.
What are the recent significant discoveries made at Rakhigarhi?
- Skeletal Remains:
- The skeletons of two women were found at Mound No. 7 believed to be nearly 5,000 years old.
- Pots and other artefacts were found buried next to the remains, part of funerary rituals back.
- DNA samples might provide clues about the ancestry and food habits of people who lived in the region thousands of years ago.
- Signs of Settlement:
- This is the first time excavations have been done on Mound No. 3 which has revealed what appears to be “an aristocratic settlement”;
- In all Harappan sites excavated so far, there have been similar signs of three tiers of habitation:
- ‘Common settlements’ with mud-brick walls
- ‘Elite settlement’ with burnt brick walls alongside mud-brick walls, and
- ‘Middle-rung settlements’.
- Jewellery Unit:
- A large number of steatite beads, beads of semi-precious stones, shells, and objects made of agate and carnelian have been recovered.
- This discovery signifies that trading was also done from the city.
- Other noteworthy findings:
- Steatite seals, terracotta bangles, terracotta unbaked sealing with relief of elephants and the Harappan script also found.
- The team also recovered some Harappan sealings (impression of a seal on a surface) indicating that seals were used to mark objects belonging to a set of people or community as they are today.
In the context of Indus Valley Civilization, consider the following statements:
1. Burnt bricks were used for construction of houses
2. Seals were used to mark objects belonging to a set of people or community
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer – C