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Arctic region

2022 NOV 24

Preliminary   > Geography   >   Places in news   >   Places in news

Why in news?

  • Recently, Russia touted its Arctic power at a flag-raising ceremony and dock launch for two nuclear-powered icebreakers that will ensure year-round navigation in the Western Arctic.

Arctic region:

  • It is commonly understood to refer to the region above the Arctic Circle, north of latitude 66° 34' N.
  • The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska (United States), Canada, Finland, Greenland (Denmark), Iceland, Norway, Russia, and Sweden.
  • Climate: The Arctic's climate is characterized by cold winters and cool summers. The monthly average temperature in the Arctic is below 10 ° C throughout the year.
  • Vegetation: Arctic vegetation is composed of plants such as dwarf shrubs, herbs, lichens, and mosses, which all grow relatively close to the ground, forming tundra. Trees rarely grow in the Arctic, but in its warmest parts, shrubs are common and can reach 2m in height.
  • Human inhabitations: Only about 4 million people live in the Arctic worldwide. The economy mostly comprises of oil and gas extraction, fishing and tourism.

 Arctic Council:

  • The Arctic Council is a high-level intergovernmental forum that addresses issues faced by the Arctic governments and the indigenous people of the Arctic.
  • The eight countries with sovereignty over the lands within the Arctic Circle constitute the members of the council: Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States.
  • Outside these, there are some observer states.


Consider the following statements:

1. Polar bears are largely found within the Arctic Circle only.

2. India is a permanent member of the Arctic council.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 only    

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2