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2022 DEC 2

Preliminary   > Science and Technology   >   Biotechnology   >   COVID 19

Why in news?

  • Bharat Biotech International Limited announced that iNCOVACC, has received approval from the Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) under Restricted Use in Emergency Situations for ages 18 and above, in India, for heterologous booster doses.


  • iNCOVACC is the world’s first Intranasal vaccine for COVID to receive approval for the primary 2-dose schedule and the heterologous booster dose.
  • iNCOVACC is a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus vectored vaccine with a pre-fusion stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.
  • iNCOVACC has been specifically formulated to allow intranasal delivery through nasal drops.
  • The nasal delivery system has been designed and developed to be cost-effective in low- and middle-income countries.

Developed by:

  • iNCOVACC was developed by Washington University, St. Louis.
  • Washington University licensed the vaccine technology to Bharat Biotech in 2020 for further development.

Types of vaccines:

  • Inactivated: These vaccines contain inactivated, but previously virulent micro-organisms that have been destroyed with chemicals, heat, or radiation. Examples include the polio vaccine and rabies vaccines.
  • Attenuated: These vaccines contain live, attenuated microorganisms. These are active viruses that have been cultivated under conditions that disable their virulent properties. Examples include the BCG vaccine against tuberculosis and measles and rubella vaccines.
  • Toxoid: These vaccines are made from inactivated toxic compounds that cause illness rather than the micro-organism. Examples of toxoid-based vaccines include tetanus and diphtheria.
  • Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines: These vaccines use a specific piece of the germ — like its protein, sugar. These vaccines are used against Hepatitis B and whooping cough.



In the context of vaccines manufactured to prevent COVID-19 pandemic, consider the following statements:

1. The Serum Institute of India produced COVID-19 vaccine named Covishield using mRNA platform.

2. Sputnik V vaccine is manufactured using vector based platform.

3. COVAXIN is an inactivated pathogen based vaccine.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3